Emerging from the findings of a multiple case study in the aerospace and construction sector, the paper presents a five-step iterative process to support decision making for sustainable PSS design, which was further applied to design an electrical load carrier.
The findings show that the proposed approach creates a “hub” where argumentations related to “value” and “sustainability” of PSS solution concepts can be systematically captured in a way that supports the discussion on the appropriate quantification strategy.
Hence, it is far from evident how sustainability-related criteria shall be defined in conjunction with more traditional performance parameters, and how they shall be “mixed and matched” with, for instance, quality, time, and cost in PSS design decision-making [25,26].
DRM consists of four stages: Research Clarification (RC), Descriptive Study I (DS-I), Prescriptive Study (PS), and Descriptive Study II (DS-II).
This paper covers a review-based RC, comprehensive DS-I and PS, and an initial DS-II.
The paper later discusses the validity of the proposed approach and the criticalities of the research design, as well as the opportunity of creating a physical environment to gather the cross-functional design team to negotiate PSS design trade-offs from a value and sustainability viewpoint.
The design research methodology (DRM) proposed by Blessing and Chakrabarti  was used as the main reference throughout the research.
Going beyond a single product life cycle to an interconnected series of product/service cycles highlights the importance of including “downstream” objectives (e.g., serviceability, flexibility, upgradeability, recyclability) in design decision making.